Common land measurement units used in India

How land is measured in India?

The land is measured using standard units. Small tracts of land or residential plots are usually measured in square feet or square meter whereas large tracts of land such as industrial or agricultural land are measured in acres or hectares. Some of the regional units used to measure land in India are Bigha, Guntha, Ground, Gaj, etc. These units are mostly used in villages where buyers still prefer to measure land in traditional ways. 

Difference between a Plot and a Ground

While a plot refers to a piece of land, irrespective of its size, a ground is a land area measuring 2,400 sq ft. The land documents, wherein the land is divided into layouts, will usually give the measurement in ground or square feet.

List of some of the common land measurement units

Unit of AreaConversion Unit
1 Square Feet (sq ft)144 sq in (1 feet is 12 inches)
1 Square Centimeters0.00107639 sq ft
1 Square Inch0.0069444 sq ft
1 Square Kilometer (sq km)247.1 acres
1 Square Meter (sq m)10.76391042 sq ft
1 Square Mile640 acres or 259 hectares
1 Square Yard (sq yd)9 sq ft
1 Acre4840 sq yd or 100.04 cents (standard unit to measure land)
1 Hectare10000 sq m or 2.49 acres approximately
1 Bigha968 sq yd
1 Biswa151.25 sq yd
1 Killa4840 sq yd
1 Ghumaon4840 sq yd
1 Kanal5445 sq ft. or 605 sq yd
1 Chatak180 sq ft
1 Kattha600 sq ft

What is the difference between Square Metre (sq m) and Hectare?

A square metre is defined as the area that is enclosed by a square, with sides measuring 1 metre. One sq m is equal to 10.76 sq ft, and one acre is equal to 4,047 sq m. While residential plots are generally measured in sq ft, agricultural land is measured in acres.

Hectare, on the other hand, is used for land sale, planning, and agriculture. One hectare is equal to 10,000 sq m. 

Finding the area of your property

A land is bifurcated into residential plots after making the necessary provision for roads, parks, schools, hospitals, markets, and other amenities. The number and size of the plot can be derived from the layout sketch. In case of a resale property, you can find the details of the property, including its area in the Sale Deed.

In case of a residential property, the area is usually given in the form of Square Feet (sq ft). However, in the case of agricultural lands, the property area is mentioned in terms of Acres or Hectares. In order to measure the land size, you need to multiply the length and the width of the available land.

Land measurement units used in North India

UnitsStates used inConversion
1 Bigha-PuccaBihar and parts of UP, Punjab, and Haryana3025 sq yd, 1 Pucca-Bigha=165 ft*165 ft
1 BighaParts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand968 sq yd
Bigha- Kachha (Kachha Bigha is one-third of Pucca Bigha.)Some parts of Punjab, Haryana, UP1008.33 sq yd
1 Biswa – PuccaUpper parts of UP, Punjab, Haryana151.25 sq yd
1 BiswaSome parts of HP,  Uttarakhand48.4 sq yd
1 Biswa  (Kaccha) (1/20 of Bigha Kaccha)Lower parts of Punjab, Haryana,  UP50.417 sq yd
1 BiswansiUP, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand1/20 Biswa. 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis
1 KillaParts of Haryana and Punjab4840 sq yd (An Acre is also known as Killa)
1 GhumaonSome parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab4840 sq yd
1 KanalHaryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir5445 sq ft. 8 Kanals is 1 Acre

Land measurement units used in South India

UnitsStates used inConversion
1 AnkanamParts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka72 sqft, 1Acre=605 Ankanams
1 CentTamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka435.6 sq ft
1 GroundParts of Tamil Nadu2400 sq ft
1 GunthaAndhra Pradesh and Karnataka  1089 sq ft
1 KunchamAndhra Pradesh484 sq yd, 1 Kuncham=10 cents

In addition to Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, people of Maharashtra also use the term ‘Guntha’ frequently.

Land measurement units used in East India

UnitsStates used inConversion
1 ChatakWest Bengal180 sq ft
1 DecimalWest Bengal48.4 sq yd, 1Acre=100 decimals
1 DhurBihar and Jharkhand68.0625 sq ft
1 DhurTripura3.6 sq ft
1 KatthaAssam2880 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Assam) has 5 Katthas
1 KatthaBengal720 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Bengal) has 20 Katthas
1 KatthaBihar1361.25 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Bihar) has 20 Katthas
1 LechaAssam144 sq ft, 20 Lechas is 1 Kattha

Both Dhur and Kattha denote different sizes, depending upon the State. While in Bihar, Dhur is over 68 sq ft, it is merely 3.6 sq ft in Tripura. In addition to Bihar and Tripura, Dhur is also commonly used in Jharkhand. Katha, on the other hand, is used majorly in West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam. Also, it is used in certain parts of Bihar, alongside Dhur. While the unit varies from State to State, it usually falls in the range of 600-2,800 sq ft.  

Land measurement units used in West India

UnitsStates used inConversion
1 BighaBihar and parts of RajasthanPucca 3025 sq yd
1 BighaGujarat and parts of Rajasthan1936 sq yd
1 BiswaUpper parts of RajasthanPucca 151.25 sq yd
1 BiswaLower parts of Rajasthan96.8 sq yd
1 BiswansiRajasthan1/20 Biswa, 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis

Land measurement units used in Central India

UnitsStates used inConversion
1 BighaParts of Madhya Pradesh1333.33 sq yd
1 KatthaMadhya Pradesh600 sq ft, 1 Bigha (MP) has 20 Kathas